Bioscience in brief Plant genetics and crop breeding How do plants reproduce sexually? Flowers contain the reproductive structures: stamens male and carpels female. Stamens produce pollen grains, which contain two sperm cells, while carpels contain the egg cells.
Plant reproduction is the process by which plants generate new individuals, or offspring. Reproduction is either sexual or asexual. Sexual reproduction is the formation of offspring by the fusion of gametes.
All plants and animals across the world reproduce in some way or another, as a way of bringing in new generations and slowly ushering in changes in the species. Some forms of copulation seem similar to humanity's mating processes — most, but not all, mammalian breeding, for instance — while others seem alien by comparison. For example, some species can reproduce asexually and, others like the egg-laying duck-billed platypus, buck the reproductive norms of their scientific classifications.
Organisms reproduce to pass on their genes and create new members of their species. If the organisms of a species all fail to reproduce then the species may become extinct. Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells or fertilisation. Only one parent is required, unlike sexual reproduction which needs two parents.
Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote. The fusion of the nuclei of male and female gametes is known as fertilization. Asexual reproduction does not involve gametes, instead parts of a mature organism may develop to new individuals.
Plant reproductive systemany of the systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce. In plantsas in animalsthe end result of reproduction is the continuation of a given speciesand the ability to reproduce is, therefore, rather conservativeor given to only moderate change, during evolution. Changes have occurred, however, and the pattern is demonstrable through a survey of plant groups.
This combination of reproductive traits has permitted the evolution of an extraordinary array of mating and pollination systems that we are only just beginning to understand. At a time of unprecedented human population expansion and biodiversity loss, research on plant reproduction, with its potential to help increase crop yields and deliver food security, and to guide effective conservation strategies, has never been more important. This Special Issue collates a diverse set of reviews and papers that span the breadth of current research on the reproductive biology of angiosperms, from the evolutionary development of the flower, the genetics and cell biology of pollen—pistil recognition and fertilization, to the emerging discipline of ecological and evolutionary systems biology.
Sexual reproduction is the production of a new organism from two parents by making use of their gametes or sex cells. Plants also have male and female sex organs. These sex organs in plants are carried within the flower and the seeds which are inside a fruit.
Many of the structures associated with sexual reproduction in plants are valuable commodities for humans think fruits, berries, and vegetables. In angiosperms, pollination is defined as the placement or transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or another flower. In gymnosperms, pollination involves pollen transfer from the male cone to the female cone.
Plant reproduction is the production of new offspring in plantswhich can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction produces offspring by the fusion of gametesresulting in offspring genetically different from the parent or parents. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except when mutations occur. In seed plantsthe offspring can be packaged in a protective seedwhich is used as an agent of dispersal.